The Evolution of Technology – The History of Computers

By Rebecca Blain … … are now an … part of the lives of human beings, there was a time where … did not exist. Knowing the histor

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By Rebecca Blain ofhttp://www.build-your-own-computer-tips.comWhile computers are now an important part of the lives of human beings, there was a time where computers did not exist. Knowing the history of computers and how much progression has been made can help you understand just how complicated and innovative the creation of computers really is.Unlike most devices, the computer is one of the few inventions that does not have one specific inventor. Throughout the development of the computer, many people have added their creations to the list required to make a computer work. Some of the inventions have been different types of computers, and some of them were parts required to allow computers to be developed further.

The Beginning
Perhaps the most significant date in the history of computers is the year 1936. It was in this year that the first “computer” was developed. It was created by Konrad Zuse and dubbed the Z1 Computer. This computer stands as the first as it was the first system to be fully programmable. There were devices prior to this, but none had the computing power that sets it apart from other electronics.It wasn’t until 1942 that any business saw profit and opportunity in computers. This first company was called ABC computers, owned and operated by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry. Two years later, the Harvard Mark I computer was developed, furthering the science of computing.Over the course of the next few years, inventors all over the world began to search more into the study of computers, and how to improve upon them. Those next ten years say the introduction of the transistor, which would become a vital part of the inner workings of the computer, the ENIAC 1 computer, as well as many other types of systems. The ENIAC 1 is perhaps one of the most interesting, as it required 20,000 vacuum tubes to operate. It was a massive machine, and started the revolution to build smaller and faster computers.The age of computers was forever altered by the introduction of International Business Machines, or IBM, into the computing industry in 1953. This company, over the course of computer history, has been a major player in the development of new systems and servers for public and private use. This introduction brought about the first real signs of competition within computing history, which helped to spur faster and better development of computers. Their first contribution was the IBM 701 EDPM Computer.
A Programming Language Evolves
A year later, the first successful high level programming language was created. This was a programming language not written in ‘assembly’ or binary, which are considered very low level languages. FORTRAN was written so that more people could begin to program computers easily.The year 1955, the Bank of America, coupled with Stanford Research Institute and General Electric, saw the creation of the first computers for use in banks. The MICR, or Magnetic Ink Character Recognition, coupled with the actual computer, the ERMA, was a breakthrough for the banking industry. It wasn’t until 1959 that the pair of systems were put into use in actual banks.During 1958, one of the most important breakthroughs in computer history occurred, the creation of the integrated circuit. This device, also known as the chip, is one of the base requirements for modern computer systems. On every motherboard and card within a computer system, are many chips that contain information on what the boards and cards do. Without these chips, the systems as we know them today cannot function.
Gaming, Mice, & the Internet
For many computer users now, games are a vital part of the computing experience. 1962 saw the creation of the first computer game, which was created by Steve Russel and MIT, which was dubbed Spacewar.The mouse, one of the most basic components of modern computers, was created in 1964 by Douglass Engelbart. It obtained its name from the “tail” leading out of the device.One of the most important aspects of computers today was invented in 1969. ARPA net was the original Internet, which provided the foundation for the Internet that we know today. This development would result in the evolution of knowledge and business across the entire planet.It wasn’t until 1970 that Intel entered the scene with the first dynamic RAM chip, which resulted in an explosion of computer science innovation. On the heels of the RAM chip was the first microprocessor, which was also designed by Intel. These two components, in addition to the chip developed in 1958, would number among the core components of modern computers.A year later, the floppy disk was created, gaining its name from the flexibility of the storage unit. This was the first step in allowing most people to transfer bits of data between unconnected computers.The first networking card was created in 1973, allowing data transfer between connected computers. This is similar to the Internet, but allows for the computers to connect without use of the Internet.
Household PC’s Emerge
The next three years were very important for computers. This is when companies began to develop systems for the average consumer. The Scelbi, Mark-8 Altair, IBM 5100, Apple I and II, TRS-80, and the Commodore Pet computers were the forerunners in this area. While expensive, these machines started the trend for computers within common households.One of the most major breathroughs in computer software occurred in 1978 with the release of the VisiCalc Spreadsheet program. All development costs were paid for within a two week period of time, which makes this one of the most successful programs in computer history.1979 was perhaps one of the most important years for the home computer user. This is the year that WordStar, the first word processing program, was released to the public for sale. This drastically altered the usefulness of computers for the everyday user.The IBM Home computer quickly helped revolutionize the consumer market in 1981, as it was affordable for home owners and standard consumers. 1981 also saw the the mega-giant Microsoft enter the scene with the MS-DOS operating system. This operating system utterly changed computing forever, as it was easy enough for everyone to learn.
The Competition Begins : Apple vs. Microsoft
Computers saw yet another vital change during the year of 1983. The Apple Lisa computer was the first with a graphical user interface, or a GUI. Most modern programs contain a GUI, which allows them to be easy to use and pleasing for the eyes. This marked the beginning of the out dating of most text based only programs. Beyond this point in computer history, many changes and alterations have occurred, from the Apple-Microsoft wars, to the developing of microcomputers and a variety of computer breakthroughs that have become an accepted part of our daily lives. Without the initial first steps of computer history, none of this would have been possible.

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Python Automation for Embedded Systems

Discover how Python automation revolutionizes Embedded Systems. Boost your efficiency and streamline your operations with our in-depth guide.

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Python automation is revolutionizing the field of Embedded Systems by boosting efficiency and streamlining operations.

In this comprehensive guide, we will explore how Python can be used to automate various peripheral interfaces in Embedded Systems.

We will discuss the benefits of Python automation, the libraries and tools available, and provide examples of automating UART, USB, I2C, SPI, and GPIO interfaces using Python.

Highlights:
Python automation is transforming the Embedded Systems industry, enhancing efficiency and streamlining operations.
By automating peripheral interfaces, developers can optimize the testing and development process.
Python’s extensive library ecosystem provides flexible and powerful tools for automating UART, USB, I2C, SPI, and GPIO interfaces.
Python automation offers benefits such as simplified code, improved testing accuracy, and faster time-to-market.
By following best practices in test automation and leveraging Python, developers can achieve efficient and reliable automation in Embedded Systems.
The Importance of Automating Peripheral Interfaces in Embedded Systems

Automating peripheral interfaces in Embedded Systems is crucial for efficient testing and development.

Python, with its extensive library ecosystem, provides a flexible and powerful toolset for automating these interfaces.

By automating UART, USB, I2C, SPI, and GPIO interfaces, developers can streamline the testing and development process, improve efficiency, and ensure the quality of their Embedded Systems.

Peripheral interfaces play a critical role in the communication between microcontrollers and external devices in Embedded Systems.

Traditionally, manual testing and development of these interfaces can be time-consuming and error-prone.

However, by harnessing the power of Python automation, developers can automate the interaction with peripheral devices, enabling them to focus on higher-level tasks and reducing the risk of human error.

Automation of peripheral interfaces using Python also allows for easier integration and collaboration with other systems and software.

Developers can utilize Python libraries such as pySerial, pyusb, Adafruit-Blinka, and RPi.GPIO to interface with different types of interfaces, send and receive data, configure settings, and perform various tests.

This seamless integration promotes efficient development cycles and facilitates rapid prototyping, ultimately leading to improved time-to-market for Embedded Systems.

Automating peripheral interfaces in Embedded Systems using Python provides numerous benefits. It enhances efficiency by streamlining the testing and development process, improves the quality and reliability of Embedded Systems, and enables seamless integration with other software and systems.

By leveraging Python automation, developers can save time and effort while ensuring the optimal performance of their Embedded Systems.

Automating UART Interface with Python

The UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter) interface is widely used in Embedded Systems for serial communication. With Python’s pySerial library, automating the UART interface becomes a breeze. Whether you need to establish communication with a peripheral device, send and receive data, or configure settings, Python and pySerial provide a powerful solution.

To illustrate the process, here’s an example of how you can automate UART communication using Python and pySerial:

Action Code
Importing pySerial library import serial
Establishing serial connection ser = serial.Serial(‘/dev/ttyUSB0′, 9600)
Sending data ser.write(b’Hello World’)
Receiving data data = ser.read(10)
Closing serial connection ser.close()
In the given example, we import the pySerial library and establish a serial connection with the ‘/dev/ttyUSB0′ device at a baud rate of 9600. We then send the string “Hello World” and read a maximum of 10 bytes of data. Finally, we close the serial connection.

Automating the UART interface with Python and pySerial simplifies the development process, allowing you to efficiently communicate with peripheral devices and integrate them into your Embedded Systems setup.

Automating USB Interface with Python
Automating the USB interface in Embedded Systems can greatly enhance efficiency and streamline communication processes. Python, with the pyusb library, provides a powerful toolset for automating USB interfaces. This section will provide an example of how to automate USB communication using Python and pyusb.

Python’s pyusb library allows developers to easily interact with USB devices, send and receive data, and configure settings. By automating USB interfaces, developers can eliminate manual tasks and ensure consistent and reliable communication between Embedded Systems and USB peripherals.

Here is an example of Python code that demonstrates how to automate USB communication using the pyusb library:

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